I got this problem from my friend, a middle-school math teacher, Tatyana Finkelstein.
We have N coins that look identical, but we know that exactly one of them is fake. The genuine coins all weight the same. The fake coin is either lighter or heavier than a real coin. We also have a balance scale.
Unlike in classical math problems where you need to find the fake coin, in this problem your task is to figure out whether the fake coin is heavier or lighter than a real coin. Your challenge is that you are only permitted to use the scale twice. Find all numbers N for which this can be done.
I would like to add an extra twist to the problem above. It is conceivable that there might be several different strategies for finding the direction in which the weight of the fake coin deviates from the real coins. In this case it is better to choose a strategy that can redeem as many coins as possible — that is, to identify the maximum number of coins as real.
The number of coins you identify as real depends on the outcomes of your weighings. Then what is the precise definition of the best strategy?
Let us call a strategy k-redeem if after the weighings you are guaranteed to demonstrate that k coins are real, but you are not guaranteed to demonstrate that k+1 coins are real. Your task is to analyze two-weighing strategies and choose the most profitable one — the strategy that guarantees to redeem the largest possible number of coins, that is, a k-redeem strategy for the largest k.Share: