I particularly like these two problems that I gave my AMSA students for homework:
Athos, Porthos, and Aramis were rewarded with six coins: three gold and three silver. Each got two coins. Athos doesn’t know what kind of coins the others got, but he knows his own coins. Ask him one question to which he can answer “Yes,” “No,” or “I do not know,” so that you will be able to figure out his coins.
There are four silver coins marked 1, 2, 3, and 5. They are supposed to weigh the number of grams that is written on them. One of the coins is fake and is lighter than it should be. Find the fake coin using the balance scale twice.